Fractions are used to represent parts of a whole thing. Many examples of fractions are shown using circular objects,  however other shapes can also be split into fractions like squares, rectangles, triangles.

The top number of a fraction shows how many parts of a whole that you have, and is called the numerator.

The bottom of a fraction shows the total numbers of elements that make up the whole, and is called the denominator.

Orange (Whole).PNG

A whole orange can be cut into 2 halves (½). Then that half can be cut in half again, leaving 4 quarter (¼) slices.

Butter 1_2.PNG

One whole stick of butter can be cut into  ¼, ⅓,  ½,  ⅔, and  ¾.

Proper Fractions

Proper fractions are used to measure the individual parts of one whole thing. In cases like this, the numerator is smaller or equal to the denominator:

½ ,  ¼ ,  ⅔ , ¾ ,  ⁴⁄₁₆

Mixed & Improper Fractions

Improper fractions are used when the total number of parts make up more than one whole. For example, if you have 5 quarter slices of an orange, this is represented by the fraction ⁵⁄₄ .

Mixed fractions are a combination of whole numbers and fractions. Mixed fractions can be changed into improper

fractions. For example, ⁵⁄₄ orange slices can be show as 1 ¼ to represent 1 full orange and 1 additional quarter slice.

Like Fractions

Fractions with the same denominators are called Like Fractions, and can be easily added together by adding the numerators and leaving the denominator the same.


⅓ + ⅔ = ³⁄₃ = 1

²⁄₁₀ + ⁵⁄₁₀ = ⁷⁄₁₀